Hoffman, Michael A.

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They Were White and They Were Slaves: The Untold History of the Enslavement of Whites in Early America Paperback – 1 Jun. 1993

Well documented and unique account of 'Indentured servants' which often meant 'white slaves.They were "kidnapped,chained, whipped and [sometimes] worked to death". Bound to service for a term of years, after which they were promised land as deferred pay, but often did not live long enough to receive the promised reward.

The English policy of backing the use of such contracts was: (1), to rid the country of criminals and 'under class' adults and children who were considered by their 'betters' to be troublesome riff-raff and petty thieves; and (2), a means by which England's colonies in the New World, including Virginia, would receive much-needed labour. These 'servants' wouldn't be aware that labourers in the New World prior to the American Revolution often succumbed to disease not long after arrival. Such newcomers often would find that their new masters cared little or nothing about their welfare.

Paperback -178 pages

ISBN-13: 978-0-929903-05-7

ISBN-10: -0-929903-05-6